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·FLAG:

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·SHIELD:

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·ANTHEM:




·MAPS:

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·GEOGRAPHY:


Scotland is a very small country. It is 274 miles (441 kilometers) long. The coastline is so jagged that it adds up to 2000 miles (3218 kilometers). At its widest point it is 154 miles (248 kilometers). At its narrowest it is only 25 miles (40 kilometers). Because of Scotlands narrowness and its deep inlets, it is never possible to get far away from the sea.
Scotland occupies the northern third of the islands of Great Britain. The river Tweed and the Cheviot Hills form Scotland’s southern border with England. The Northwest Channel separates southwestern Scotland from Northern Ireland. The northwest coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. East faces the North Sea. The east coast faces the North Sea, which separates Scotland from the mainland of Europe.

Land regionsScotland has three main land regions. They are, from north to south, the Highlands, the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands.
The Highlands
Is a rugged, barren region that covers the northern two thirds of Scotland. There are two major mountain ranges, the Northwest Highlands and the Grampian Mountains rise in this region. The ranges have parallel ridges that run through the Highlands from northeast to southwest. A deep valley called Glen Mor or the Great Glen separates the two mountain ranges. The highest peak in the British Isle is 4406 feet (1343 meters). Ben Nevis, rises south of Glen Mor. The Highlands have two kinds of valleys. Steep, narrow glens and broad, rolling straths. Much of the land in the Highlands is a treeless area called a moor or a heath. The most rugged land lies along the west coast. Most Highlanders live on the narrow coastal plains.

The Central Lowlands
The valleys of the Rivers Clyde, Fourth, and Tay cross the Central Lowlands. This region has Scotland’s best farmland. Wide, fertile fields and low hills with patches of trees cover the entire region. About three-fourths of Scottish people live in the lowlands.
The Southern Uplands
They consist of rolling moors broken in places by rocky cliffs. The top of the hills are largely barren, but rich pasture land covers most of the lower slopes. Many sheep and cattle are raised in the southern uplands. In the south, the uplands rise to the Cheviot Hills.
Rivers and Lakes
The river Clyde is Scotland’s most important river. Ships from the Atlantic Ocean can sail up the Clyde to Glasgow. The Clyde was narrow and shallow until the 1700’s when engineers widened and deepened the river to make it navigable. Scotland’s longest rivers flow eastward into the North Sea. The Tay, 120 miles (193 kilometers) long, is the largest river in Scotland. It carries more water than any other river in the United Kingdom. Many of Scotland’s rivers flow into wide bays called firths. The Firths of Forth, Tay, and Moray are on the east coast. The Firths of Clyde and Lorn lie on the west side. All ships bound for Glasgow must pass through the Firth of Clyde. A suspension bridge, one of the longest in the world, spans the Firth of Forth at Queens Ferry. It is 8244 feet (2313 meters) long. Most of Scotland’s lakes (which are called lochs) lie in deep Highland valleys. Loch Lomond is Scotland’s largest lake. It is 23 miles (37 kilometers) long and 5 miles (8 kilometers) at its widest point. A series of lakes extend through Glen Mor. These lakes are connected by canals and form the Caledonian Canal, which cuts across Scotland from Moray Firth to the Firth of Lorn. One of the canals lakes is famous for its "monster". Some people claim to have seen a creature 30 feet (9 meters) long in the lake. Along the west coast of Scotland, the Atlantic Ocean extends inland in many narrow bays called sea lochs.
Islands
Scotland has hundreds of islands. A large group of islands called the Hebrides lie off the west coast of Scotland’s mainland. The Orkney and Shetland groups lie north of the mainland and form the boundary between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.



·HISTORY:


Scotland was first decisively settled after the end of the last glacial period (in the paleolithic), roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, and the Iron Age around 700 BC. The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, the Roman province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall, which once ran from the Clyde to the Forth. To the north lay the territory of the Caledonia, by name whose people were described as "Picti", in Latin, meaning ‘painted ones’. Due to constant incursions from these Picti the Roman legions would be forced back to Hadrian's Wall within 20 years of its construction, and forced to abandon the territory by the beginning of the 3rd Century.

During the 5th century the North West (North of the Antonine Wall and West of the Grampian mountains) is believed to have been raided and latter settled by Gaels / Scoti originating from Northern Ireland. These raiders would later found the Kingdom of Dál Riata in the West. In the following century an Irish missionary Columba would found a monastery, on Iona, and introduce the previously pagan Scotti to Celtic Christianity, and with less success the Picts of Pictland. King Nechtan of Pictland would later choose to expel the Columban church in favour of the Roman, principally to restrict the influence of the Scoti on his kingdom and to avoid a war with Northumbria.In the same period Angles had conquered the previously Brythonic territory south of the Clyde and Forth, initially creating the Anglo Saxon kingdom of Bernicia, later becoming a part of the Kingdom of Northumbria. Towards the end of the 8th century all three kingdoms would be raided, settled and to some extent come under Viking control. Successive defeats by the Norse would force the Picts and Scoti to cease their historic hostility to each other and unite in the 9th Century, to form the Kingdom of Scotland.

The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the decendents of Kenneth MacAlpin, first king of a united Scotland. His decendents, known to modern historians as the House of Alpin, would fight amongst each other during frequent disputed successions. The last Alpin king, Malcolm II, died without issue and the kingdom passed through his daughter's son, Duncan I, who started a new line of kings known to modern historians as the House of Dunkeld or Canmore. The last Dunkeld king, Alexander III, died leaving only a single infant granddaughter as heir. When Margaret, Maid of Norway herself died in a tragic shipwreck en route to Scotland. England, under Edward I, would take advantage of the questioned succession in Scotland to launch a series of conquests into Scotland. The resulting Wars of Scottish Independence were fought as Scotland passed back and forth between the House of Balliol and the House of Bruce. Scotland's ultimate victory in the Wars of Independence under David II would confirm Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. When David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stuart, which would rule Scotland uncontested. James VI, Stuart king of Scotland, would also inherit the throne of England and the Stuart kings and queens would rule both independent kingdoms until the Act of Union in 1707 merged the two kingdoms into a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch, ruling until 1714. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Windsor) has been due to their descent from James VI and I of the House of Stuart.

During the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Its industrial decline following the Second World War was particularly acute, but in recent decades the country has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector, the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas.


·SCOTTISH CUISINE:



Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland. It has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, but shares much with wider European cuisine as a result of foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration.


Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were often very expensive.

Scottish cuisine is enjoying a renaissance[when?]. In most towns, Chinese and Indian take-away restaurants exist alongside traditional fish and chip shops. In larger towns and cities the cuisine may also include Thai, Japanese, Mexican, Pakistani, Polish and Turkish cuisines.



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·SCOTTISH CLOTHING:


Traditional Scottish clothing is characterised by the appearance of tartan or ‘plaid’ patterns in some form. Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Originally it was made from woven cloth, but now additional materials are also used.
Until the middle of the 19th century, highland tartans were associated with regions or districts, rather than by any specific clan or family. This was due to the fact that the designs were produced by local weavers, with a limited range of local dyes and for local tastes.

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Male Scottish dress includes a kilt or ‘trews’, sporrans and gillie brogues.
The kilt is a knee-length ‘skirt’ with pleats at the rear. It was first worn in the 16th century, by men and boys in the Scottish Highlands. It is typically made from one piece of fabric that is wrapped around and fastened at the side.
Since the 19th century, it has been associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic – and more specifically Gaelic – heritage further afield.
Today, the Scottish kilt is most frequently worn on formal occasions or at Highland games and sports events. It has, however, all been adapted for more mainstream fashion, and can be seen on catwalks across the globe, worn by Scottish and non-Scottish fans alike.
The sporran is made of leather or fur, and serves as a wallet and container for any other necessary personal items, as the traditional Scottish kilt does not have pockets.
In medieval times, it would have been attached to the belt. Today, it generally hangs just below the belt buckle on a chain, but can be turned around the waist, to let it hang on the hip in a more casual and convenient position.
Gillie brogues are traditional thick-soled shoes, with no tongues and long laces. The laces are secured by wrapping them around the ankles then tied. The shoes deliberately lack tongues, so the wearer’s feet can dry more quickly in typically damp Scottish weather.
The Gillie brogue is named after the Gillie, the traditional Scottish gamekeeper and outdoorsman.
Traditionally, women and girls didn’t wear kilts, but sometimes wore ankle-length plaid skirts. In the absence of this, or in addition, a tartan sash or shawl may also be worn to indicate clan affiliation.
Female dress also includes gillie shoes that are tied on the same way as their male counterparts’, but they tend to have thin soles for indoor wear and dancing.
Women may also wear ‘dress’ tartans, which have white threads woven into the patterns. The light colour of this fabric was a status symbol. It was used to demonstrate prosperity, because the wearer could wear the tartan without fear of it being soiled.
White tartan was also worn to social events as a sign of peace and harmony – indicating it would not be stained by bloodshed.



·TOURISM:

Scotland is a well-developed tourist destination, with tourism generally being responsible for sustaining 200,000 jobs mainly in the service sector, with tourist spending averaging at £4bn per year.Tourists from the United Kingdom make up the bulk of visitors to Scotland. In 2002, for example, UK visitors made 18.5 million visits to Scotland, staying 64.5 million nights and spending £3.7bn. In contrast, overseas residents made 1.58 million visits to Scotland, staying 15 million nights and spending £806m. In terms of overseas visitors, those from the United States made up 24% of visits to Scotland, with the United States being the largest source of overseas visitors, and Germany (9%), France (8%), Canada (7%) and Australia (6%), following behind.

Scotland is generally seen as clean, unspoilt destination with beautiful scenery which has a long and complex history, combined with thousands of historic sites and attractions[citation needed]. These include prehistoric stone circles, standing stones and burial chambers, and various Bronze Age, Iron Age and Stone Age remains. There are also many historic castles, houses, and battlegrounds, ruins and museums. Many people are drawn by the culture of Scotland.

The cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow are increasingly being seen as a cosmopolitan alternative to Scotland's countryside, with visitors year round, but the main tourist season is generally from April to October inclusive. In addition to these factors, the national tourist agency, VisitScotland, have deployed a strategy of niche marketing, aimed at exploiting, amongst other things, Scotland's strengths in golf, fishing and food and drink tourism. Another significant, and increasingly popular reason for tourism to Scotland - especially by those from North America - is genealogy, with many visitors coming to Scotland to explore their family and ancestral roots.

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·KINGDOM:

The Kingdom of Scotland (Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in Northern Europe that existed from 843 until 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank throughout its history, but eventually came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, under the terms of the Acts of Union. Since the final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482 (following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472) the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland has corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. Apart from the mainland, the Kingdom of Scotland consisted of over 790 islands.

Edinburgh, the capital, was preceded by the towns of Scone/Perth, Dunfermline and Stirling as the country's capital. The population of the Kingdom of Scotland in 1701, six years before the passing of the Acts of Union, was approximately 1.1 million.

·ACTORS AND ACTRESSES

Flora Robson:


Flora Robson was born on 28 March 1902 in the town of Shields in Scotland.
Flora's parents discovered the natural talent he had, because since I was 5, I knew recite and repeat any work he heard. For this reason they took to compete for concerts contests counties.
The actress received his primary education at Green High School, to continue her acting career at the Academy of Dramatic Arts.
At 19, the actress and theater performances was speaking on Shakespeare.
During the decade of the 20s, actress, focused on the performances in the theater, gaining experience in strong character roles as Queen Elizabeth I of England.
In the early 30's and while his performances in the theater, Flora makes the leap to the big screen, taking part in films like "A Gentleman of Paris", Catherine the Great or Wuthering Heights, among other films.
The decade of the 40, start for the actress with the film, "The Sea Hawk" and "Saratoga Trunk" with Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman and which embodies the character of Angelique Buiton for which she was nominated for an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress.
In 1958, Flora is awarded an honorary DLitt from the University of Durham
During the 50s and 60s Flora not stop acting in the theater, being a little more selective with who decided to intervene feature films such as "No time for tears", David Copperfield, or 55 days in Beijing " Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines ".
In the 70's, Flora leaves the theater performances and plays only some minor characters in the film as "Alice in Wonderland", in which he plays the Queen of Hearts.
The last to calving Flora film was in the film Clash of the Titans, opposite Laurence Olivier and Ursula Andress.
Flora died in Brighton, England, on July 7, 1984.


Georgia King:


Actress Georgia King was born on November 18, 1986 in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland. His parents are Australian actor Jonathan Hyde and actress and opera singer Isobel Buchanan.
Georgia private school attended Exeter School. At 20 years old, debuted on British television Rosamond Oliver playing in the miniseries "Jane Eyre" in 2006.
After working on two films for the BBC, Georgia won the leading role of Pet Gowan in the miniseries "Little Dorrit", followed by various interests in television series such as "Off the Hook", "Agatha Christie's Poirot", "The Adventures Merlin "," Sugartown "and" Skins ", among others.
Georgia is currently playing the lead role of Goldie in the new NBC series "The New Normal.
Alongside his television career, King has filmed more than a dozen feature films, debuting in 2008 with Emma Roberts, Aidan Quinn and Natasha Richardson in comedy "Wild Child (Wild Child)". Since then his credits include titles such as "The Duchess" (2008), "Tormented" (2009), "Tanner Hall" (2009), "St Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold" (2009), "Eliminate: Archie Cookson "(2011)," Chalet Girl "(2011) and" One Day (One Day) "(2011).
Among his next projects, Georgia may be seen in the romantic comedy "Austenland" (2012), starring alongside a cast led by Keri Russell, JJ Feild and Jennifer Coolidge, and the horror film in a comic "Cockneys vs zombies "(2012), who is starring opposite Michelle Ryan

Kevin McKidd:


Actor and director Kevin McKidd was born on August 9, 1973 in the town of Elgin, in the region of Moray, northern Scotland. His father was a plumber and his mother, Kathleen, a secretary. Kevin attended Seafield Primary School and Elgin Academy, and during that time he joined the amateur theater group Moray Youth Theatre.
With inyención studying engineering, he attended Edinburgh University, but dropped out and instead enrolled at Queen Margaret College in the same city, to study drama. There he joined the theater company of the University, where he served as a member of the improvisational comedy troupe "The Improverts".
In 1994 he received the lead role in the play "The Silver Darlings", produced by Robert Carlyle Company, "Rain Dog Theatre". It was only a matter of time before Kevin made his screen debut as the vicious gangster boss Malky Johnson's film "Small Faces" (1996). Her next role was that of Tommy in "Trainspotting" (1996).
He has since worked in various films and TV series in both the U.S. as in the UK. The former include such titles as "The Kingdom of Heaven" (2005) by Ridley Scott, "The Last Legion" (2007), "Hannibal: The Origin of Evil" (2007) and the British cult film "Dog Soldiers "(2002).
More recently he could see it in "Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief" (2010), "Bunraku" (2010) and "Brave (untamed)" (2012), in which he voiced the character of Lord MacGuffin.
Her television are those that have provided greater recognition and, after working in some series and British miniseries as "North Square", "The Virgin Queen" and "Anna Karenina", in 2004 he joined the cast of the series " Rome "to play Lucius Vorenus.
Her role in "Rome", led him to be chosen to join the cast of the U.S. television series "Grey's Anatomy" in the role of Dr. Owen Hunt. In the series, McKidd also made his directorial debut in the seventh season, in the episode "Do not Deceive Me (Please Do not Go)".
In his personal life, the Scottish actor Jane Parker married in 1999 and have two children, Joseph and Iona. The family resides in Los Angeles during the filming of "Grey's Anatomy", but is returning to Scotland or the UK at least twice a year. His portrayal of Dr. Owen Hunt has led him to support the P3 project, a charity that provides pediatric care in Africa.



Rory McCann:


Rory McCann is a Scottish actor born in 1969 in Glasgow.
He began his career in a commercial for Scotts' Porridge Oats and later, in 1999, debuted before the cameras in the TV movie "Coming Soon" and an untitled small stake in the drama "Ratcatcher". Since then, he has developed a successful career in both film and television.
On the big screen, his credits include roles in the films "Young Adam" starring Ewan McGregor and Emily Mortimer, "Alexander the Great", in which he worked alongside the likes of Angelina Jolie and Colin Farrell Antonhy Hopkins, "Weapon fatal "," the Crew "," Clash of the Titans "and" Season of the Witch ", among others.
In television, he had regular roles on the series "The Book Group" where Kenny McLeod played between 2002 and 2003, the year that gave life to Adam in "Rockface" and from 2011 he can be seen in the Sandor Clegane skin in "Game of Thrones," based on the novel series "A Song of Ice and Fire" by George R. R. Martin.
Other credits for the small screen include appearances as a guest on "Monarch of the Glen", "London's Burning", "State of Play", "Shameless" and "Heroes and Villains", as well as the films "Peter in Paradise" "Days of Darkness" and "Freddie".


·SINGERS:

Sarah McLaclan:


The singer known McLaclan Sarah was born and adopted in Halifax, Nova Scotia on January 28, 1968. When she was only four years his parents gave him a ukulele and started taking voice lessons. They also shared their time learning the piano and classical guitar. When turning 17 became part of a rock band called "October game".

After giving his first concert in the band was offered a record contract by the independent record label Nettwerk located in Vancouver. Were your parents who convinced her to finish school and then start a new life as a music artist, since she was very young only thought to be a singer.

When he signed the contract had to move to Vancouver to record their first album, which I call Touch in 1988. This album had a remarkable public acceptance and immediately became a success. In 1991 published a new album titled "Solace" opening the way for a new musical trend in Canada, thanks to singles like "The Path of Thorns" and "Into the Fire".
The best of success in his country he gave his album "Fumbling Towards Ecstasy" 1993. Would this be the same production that would achieve international fame. But it was "Lilith Fair" and her tour who made able to get nearly 2 million people in only three-year career, thereby raising nearly $ 7 million, which allocated to charities and donations.
In 1998 she won the prize of Elizabeth Cady Stanton Visionary to collaborate in advancing the careers of women in the music world. Regarding their emotional and loving, married Sarah Aswin Sood on February 7, 1997 in Jamaica and "Lilith Fair" debuted the same year, after the singer was absent for a while due to travel and other recordings were pending.
Sarah was happy with her new life and was pregnant as she began recording a new album, but her mother died in December 2001, leaving very sad, going through a depression and refuge for a while in your home and care for her daughter he was just months old.
His new musical that would work out scenarios again is "Afterglow", which was three-quarters done. A month later, he made a duet with Bryan Adams was released on the soundtrack of Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron, Sarah sang harmonies and played the piano for the song "Do not Let Go".
In early 2005, McLachlan was part of the star telethon organized by the NBC television network, which aimed to raise funds for the victims of the Asian tsunami, since there has been dedicated to working with her in music benefit concert be performed.


January 29 was the main artist in a concert in Vancouver beneficial alongside other music superstars like Avril Lavigne Canadian and Bryan Adams. This concert was called "One World: Concert for Tsunami Relief" and raised nearly $ 3.6 million. By July of 2005 contributed to one of the Live 8 concert in Philadelphia playing their single "Angel" with Josh Groban. These concerts were held simultaneously in eight cities worldwide and coincided with the meeting of the organization of the world's richest countries or G8. The idea was to pressure the leaders of these countries to fight poverty in Africa, enabling more international aid.

·SCOTTISH WILDLIFE:

Autumn and winter is a fantastic time to get out and see wildlife in Scotland and this week BBC's Autumnwatch broadcasts live from the Highlands.
The Caerlaverock Wildfowl and Wetland Trust (WWT) reserve, near Dumfries is a key stopping-off point for migrating geese and a popular viewing spot for whooper swans, barnacle geese and many other species that populate the mudflats of the Solway Firth at this time of year.
Also popular with bird-watchers is the Autumn and winter is a fantastic time to get out and see wildlife in Scotland and this week BBC's Autumnwatch broadcasts live from the Highlands.
The Caerlaverock Wildfowl and Wetland Trust (WWT) reserve, near Dumfries is a key stopping-off point for migrating geese and a popular viewing spot for whooper swans, barnacle geese and many other species that populate the mudflats of the Solway Firth at this time of year.
Also popular with bird-watchers is the RSPB Loch Leven Reserve in Kinross where thousands of migrating pink footed geese arrive in early September. As many as 10,000 remain here during the winter months.
Pink footed geese also alight in force at the Scottish Wildlife Trust's Montrose Basin Wildlife Reserve from September onwards. To take full advantage of their arrival, SWT run Goose Breakfast Mornings to watch the birds fly at dawn.
This time of year also sees the start of the ‘rutting' - or mating - season for red deer. The elaborate displays of antler rattling battles for dominance among the male stags can be seen with a little luck throughout Scotland. Deer are normally found in lower ground during winter and spring periods, when they are often seen by travellers on the A9 road between Perth and Inverness or on various Highland railway routes.
Scotland's islands and remote shores heave with a proliferation of grey seals in October and November as the females arrive onshore to give birth to a single fluffy white pup each. With an estimated 90,000 grey seals in Scottish waters, there is a good chance of spotting these blubbery beauties.
Grey seals arrive on the Isle of May from October and the Scottish Seabird Centre (SSC) in North Berwick is an ideal vantage point. The centre overlooks both the Isle of May with its seal colonies and the Bass Rock - a major gannet nesting site. The centre operates a series of remote cameras on the surrounding islands and visitors can use a camera joystick to view the beaches where seals bask and rear their pups.
Surprise yourself and discover Scotland's fantastic wildlife.


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